ccTLDs Can be Shown to Global Audience But Can’t Geotarget Other Countries
Sites with a ccTLD can be relevant to countries outside of the one associated with the TLD. However, a ccTLD won’t be able to geo-target other specific countries.
Geotargeting Can’t be Applied to Language Versions Which Are Split Out Using Parameters
Google is unable to automatically detect and apply geotargeting if different language or country versions of a site are separated out using parameters.
Geotargeting AMP is Possible But Difficult to Implement
Theoretically, you can geotarget AMP pages to countries with poor connection speeds. However, this wouldn’t be easy to implement, as Google tries to keep a global view by associating an AMP version with the normal version of the page.
ccTLDs Can’t be Applied to a General Region
ccTLDs only work at a country level, so you can have ccTLDs for the different countries in Africa but you can’t have one ccTLD targeting the whole of Africa.
ccTLDs Can Target Other Countries Using Hreflang But Not Geotargeting
ccTLDs can use hreflang to target pages to different countries but they can’t geotarget those pages for other different countries.
IP Addresses Are No Longer Used For Geotargeting or Local SEO
Server IP addresses used to be a signal in the early days of Google’s geotargeting. Now Google uses ccTLD, generic TLD, hreflang, as well as settings in Google My Business and Google Search Console in combination to infer geotargeting information which is much more useful than a single IP.
Google Requires Distinct Section on Site For Geotargeting to be Understood
Google requires that websites using geo-targeting have a dedicated section on the site for specific territories such as a separate subdirectory or subdomain.
Country-Specific Content Requires Different Domains, Subdomains or Subdirectories
For country targeting, Google requires a clear distinction between country-specific content by using separate domains, subdomains or subdirectories.
Geo-targeting is Only Way International & Local Sites Separated in Web Search
Beyond geo-targeting, Google web search doesn’t have anything that tries to recognise international versus local sites.